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Using a foreign cellular telephone in Italy can be very expensive, unless you have international service as part of your subscription. For UK visitors, Vodafone offers a plan called "Vodafone passport", which has an additional per-call connection fee, but then reverts to UK rates. For other visitors there are plenty of telephone booths and phone cards available. There are also some internet cafes with international calling booths.
If you're going to be in Italy for a while you might consider renting an Italian cellular phone from a provider like Tim or Wind. To do this you will need to obtain a codice fiscale. This is not difficult, and if catch a shop clerk when they are not busy and politely explain what you need they might handle this for you while you wait.
Here are emergency telephone numbers, valid everywhere in Italy. Note that 911 may also be dialled and is redirected to 112, the Pan-European emergency number, valid throughout Europe.
Italian landline telephone numbers can vary from six to eleven digits, although most numbers will have nine or ten digits. The international country code for Italy is 39. To make an out-going international call from Italy, dial 00 first. The regional code for Rome is 06, which must always be included, even when calling from inside Rome.
Poste Italiane is the Italian government postal service, providing collection and delivery of mail and packages. They also furnish telegram service, express mail, and online services. It is an innovative and competitive operator in financial and payment services, offering savings and checking accounts, bonds, national and international money orders, and currency exchange services, as well as communications and logistics.